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Health Promotion, Education and Behavior: APA 6 Format

Resources for students and faculty in the Department of Health Promotion, Education and Behavior, the Arnold School of Public Health.

American Psychological Association (APA) 6th ed.

The APA has established an editorial style, commonly used in the social and behavioral sciences, that combines in-text citations with a corresponding list of references for documenting sources.

  • References are formatted based on the type of content (e.g. book chapter, journal article, movie), not by the location of that content in a library or on the Internet.
  • Examples below show both print- and web-based references for the different types of content.
  • Examples of in-text citations are also available

Journal Article examples

Article with DOI (Digital Object Identifier) assigned:

Feiring, C., Simon, V., & Cleland, C. (2009). Childhood sexual abuse, stigmatization, internalizing symptoms, and the development

of sexual difficulties and dating aggression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(1), 127-137.

Article online -- use Journal homepage URL when DOI not assigned:

Minkler, M., & Robertson, A. (1991). Generational equity and public health policy: A critique of "Age/Race War" thinking. Journal of

Public Health Policy, 12(3), 324-344. Retrieved from 

Article in print (when each issue within a volume does not start over at page 1, do not include the issue number):

Kohl, D. (2007). Peer review and the academic twelfth man. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 33, 437-438.

Article in print (when each issue within a volume starts with page 1, include the issue number in parentheses):

Cooper, S., Monarch, N., Serviss, S., Gordick, D., & Leonard, H. (2007). Professional preparation and continuing education for

beginning, entry, midlevel, and senior consulting psychologists.Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research,

59(1), 1-16.

Articles from Magazines, Newspapers, Encyclopedias, and the Web

Magazine article:

Clay, R. A. (2008, June). Science v. ideology: Psychologists fight back against the misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology, 39(6).

Retrieved from

Newspaper articles:

Basken, P. (2007, August 10). Nonprofit lenders, while helping students, help themselves. The Chronicle of Higher Education.

Retrieved from

Ruhe, P. (2007, August 8). Pouring it on: Heat churns in vicious cycle. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, p. 1A.

Encyclopedia article:

Davis, H. D. (2003). State boards of education. In J. W. Guthrie. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of education (2nd ed., Vol. 7, pp. 2350-2364).

New York: Macmillan Reference USA.

Blog post:

Laden, G. (2011, May 8). A history of childbirth and misconceptions about life expectancy [Blog post]. Retrieved from­_of_childbirth_and_mi.php

Web article:

American Diabetes Association. (2014). Skin complications. Retrieved from


Government, Business, and Technical Reports

Government report:

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003).

Managing asthma: A guide for schools (NIH Publication No. 02-2650). Retrieved from


Industry Report from IBISWorld:

Ahmad, A. (2014, September). Candy Production in the US (IBISWorld Industry Report 31134). Retrieved from IBISWorld database.

Working Papers:

Deming, D., & Dynarski, S. (2008). The lengthening of childhood (NBER Working Paper No. 14124). Retrieved from National Bureau

of Economic Research website:

Victor, N. M. (2008). Gazprom: Gas giant under strain (Working Paper No. 71). Retrieved from Stanford University, Program on

Energyand Sustainable Development website:

Book and Book Chapter examples


Wieder, A. (2008). Teacher and comrade: Richard Dudley and the fight for democracy in South Africa. Albany, NY: State University

of New York Press.

Eggins, S., & Slade, D. (1997). Analyzing casual conversation. London: Cassell.

Hüfner, S. (Ed.). (2007). Very high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy. Retrieved from

Robins, R. W., Fraley, R. C., & Krueger, R. F. (Eds.). (2007). Handbook of research methods in personality psychology. New York:

Guilford Press.

Book chapter:

McCrae, R. R., & Weiss, A. (2007). Observer ratings of personality. In R. W. Robins, R. C. Fraley, & R. F. Krueger (Eds.), Handbook of

research methods in personality (pp. 259-272). New York: Guilford Press.

Dissertations and Theses

In a commercial database:

Shimpalee, P. (2004). The contribution of economic and institutional factors to currency crises: Additional evidence from Asia,

Europe and the western hemisphere (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database.

(UMI No. 3142857)

In an institutional database:

Boyce, T. D. (2009). I am leaving and not looking back: The life of Benner C. Turner. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

In print:

Miller, M. W. (1981). Professional/client interaction: Implications for education and management (Unpublished doctoral dissertation).

University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

APA Manuals

What is a DOI and when do I use it?

A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that provides a persistent link to content online. In APA style, try to include a DOI for every reference if possible.

Printable style sheet