The APA has established an editorial style, commonly used in the social and behavioral sciences, that combines in-text citations with a corresponding list of references for documenting sources.
Article with DOI (Digital Object Identifier) assigned:
Feiring, C., Simon, V., & Cleland, C. (2009). Childhood sexual abuse, stigmatization, internalizing symptoms, and the development
of sexual difficulties and dating aggression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(1), 127-137.
Article online -- use Journal homepage URL when DOI not assigned:
Minkler, M., & Robertson, A. (1991). Generational equity and public health policy: A critique of "Age/Race War" thinking. Journal of
Public Health Policy, 12(3), 324-344. Retrieved from http://www.palgrave-journals.com/jphp/index.html
Article in print (when each issue within a volume does not start over at page 1, do not include the issue number):
Kohl, D. (2007). Peer review and the academic twelfth man. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 33, 437-438.
Article in print (when each issue within a volume starts with page 1, include the issue number in parentheses):
Cooper, S., Monarch, N., Serviss, S., Gordick, D., & Leonard, H. (2007). Professional preparation and continuing education for
beginning, entry, midlevel, and senior consulting psychologists.Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research,
Clay, R. A. (2008, June). Science v. ideology: Psychologists fight back against the misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology, 39(6).
Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor
Basken, P. (2007, August 10). Nonprofit lenders, while helping students, help themselves. The Chronicle of Higher Education.
Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/weekly/v53/i49/49a01401.htm
Ruhe, P. (2007, August 8). Pouring it on: Heat churns in vicious cycle. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, p. 1A.
Davis, H. D. (2003). State boards of education. In J. W. Guthrie. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of education (2nd ed., Vol. 7, pp. 2350-2364).
New York: Macmillan Reference USA.
Laden, G. (2011, May 8). A history of childbirth and misconceptions about life expectancy [Blog post]. Retrieved from
American Diabetes Association. (2014). Skin complications. Retrieved from http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003).
Managing asthma: A guide for schools (NIH Publication No. 02-2650). Retrieved from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof/lung
Industry Report from IBISWorld:
Ahmad, A. (2014, September). Candy Production in the US (IBISWorld Industry Report 31134). Retrieved from IBISWorld database.
Deming, D., & Dynarski, S. (2008). The lengthening of childhood (NBER Working Paper No. 14124). Retrieved from National Bureau
of Economic Research website: http://www.nber.org/papers/w14124
Victor, N. M. (2008). Gazprom: Gas giant under strain (Working Paper No. 71). Retrieved from Stanford University, Program on
Energyand Sustainable Development website: http://pesd.fsi.stanford.edu/publications/gazprom_gas_giant_under_strain/
Wieder, A. (2008). Teacher and comrade: Richard Dudley and the fight for democracy in South Africa. Albany, NY: State University
of New York Press.
Eggins, S., & Slade, D. (1997). Analyzing casual conversation. London: Cassell.
Hüfner, S. (Ed.). (2007). Very high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy. Retrieved from http://springerlink.com
Robins, R. W., Fraley, R. C., & Krueger, R. F. (Eds.). (2007). Handbook of research methods in personality psychology. New York:
McCrae, R. R., & Weiss, A. (2007). Observer ratings of personality. In R. W. Robins, R. C. Fraley, & R. F. Krueger (Eds.), Handbook of
research methods in personality (pp. 259-272). New York: Guilford Press.
In a commercial database:
Shimpalee, P. (2004). The contribution of economic and institutional factors to currency crises: Additional evidence from Asia,
Europe and the western hemisphere (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database.
(UMI No. 3142857)
In an institutional database:
Boyce, T. D. (2009). I am leaving and not looking back: The life of Benner C. Turner. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from
Miller, M. W. (1981). Professional/client interaction: Implications for education and management (Unpublished doctoral dissertation).
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that provides a persistent link to content online. In APA style, try to include a DOI for every reference if possible.