IBM's guide to financials provides basic information on how to read financial statements in a company's annual report. It discusses key numbers in each of the statements common to all annual reports and offers suggestions from experienced investors on making sense of these numbers.
This article briefly discusses the five major principles considered when preparing financial statements--the cost principle, the full disclosure principle, the going concern principle, the matching principle and the revenue recognition principle.
Chapter 4 of the accounting textbook "Financial Accounting" by Larry M. Walther discusses the steps in preparing financial statements, including the adjustment process and the worksheet approach. There is also a related video lecture below.
IBM's guide explains the basic purpose and anatomy of an annual report.
While Annual Reports do not typically provide the full content of financial statements, these reports are often the only source of published financial information for certain companies, particularly private and non-profit organizations.