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Citation Formats: APA 6 Format

American Psychological Association (APA) 6th ed.

The APA has established an editorial style, commonly used in the social and behavioral sciences, that combines in-text citations with a corresponding list of references for documenting sources.

  • References are formatted based on the type of content (e.g. book chapter, journal article, movie), not by the location of that content in a library or on the Internet.
  • Examples below show both print- and web-based references for the different types of content.
  • Examples of in-text citations are also available

Journal Article examples

Article with DOI (Digital Object Identifier) assigned:

Feiring, C., Simon, V., & Cleland, C. (2009). Childhood sexual abuse, stigmatization, internalizing symptoms, and the development

of sexual difficulties and dating aggression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(1), 127-137.

Article online -- use Journal homepage URL when DOI not assigned:

Minkler, M., & Robertson, A. (1991). Generational equity and public health policy: A critique of "Age/Race War" thinking. Journal of

Public Health Policy, 12(3), 324-344. Retrieved from 

Article in print (when each issue within a volume does not start over at page 1, do not include the issue number):

Kohl, D. (2007). Peer review and the academic twelfth man. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 33, 437-438.

Article in print (when each issue within a volume starts with page 1, include the issue number in parentheses):

Cooper, S., Monarch, N., Serviss, S., Gordick, D., & Leonard, H. (2007). Professional preparation and continuing education for

beginning, entry, midlevel, and senior consulting psychologists.Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research,

59(1), 1-16.

Articles from Magazines, Newspapers, Encyclopedias, and the Web

Magazine article:

Clay, R. A. (2008, June). Science v. ideology: Psychologists fight back against the misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology, 39(6).

Retrieved from

Newspaper articles:

Basken, P. (2007, August 10). Nonprofit lenders, while helping students, help themselves. The Chronicle of Higher Education.

Retrieved from

Ruhe, P. (2007, August 8). Pouring it on: Heat churns in vicious cycle. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, p. 1A.

Encyclopedia article:

Davis, H. D. (2003). State boards of education. In J. W. Guthrie. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of education (2nd ed., Vol. 7, pp. 2350-2364).

New York: Macmillan Reference USA.

Blog post:

Laden, G. (2011, May 8). A history of childbirth and misconceptions about life expectancy [Blog post]. Retrieved from­_of_childbirth_and_mi.php

Web article:

American Diabetes Association. (2014). Skin complications. Retrieved from


Government, Business, and Technical Reports

Government report:

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003).

Managing asthma: A guide for schools (NIH Publication No. 02-2650). Retrieved from


Industry Report from IBISWorld:

Ahmad, A. (2014, September). Candy Production in the US (IBISWorld Industry Report 31134). Retrieved from IBISWorld database.

Working Papers:

Deming, D., & Dynarski, S. (2008). The lengthening of childhood (NBER Working Paper No. 14124). Retrieved from National Bureau

of Economic Research website:

Victor, N. M. (2008). Gazprom: Gas giant under strain (Working Paper No. 71). Retrieved from Stanford University, Program on

Energyand Sustainable Development website:

Book and Book Chapter examples


Wieder, A. (2008). Teacher and comrade: Richard Dudley and the fight for democracy in South Africa. Albany, NY: State University

of New York Press.

Eggins, S., & Slade, D. (1997). Analyzing casual conversation. London: Cassell.

Hüfner, S. (Ed.). (2007). Very high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy. Retrieved from

Robins, R. W., Fraley, R. C., & Krueger, R. F. (Eds.). (2007). Handbook of research methods in personality psychology. New York:

Guilford Press.

Book chapter:

McCrae, R. R., & Weiss, A. (2007). Observer ratings of personality. In R. W. Robins, R. C. Fraley, & R. F. Krueger (Eds.), Handbook of

research methods in personality (pp. 259-272). New York: Guilford Press.

Dissertations and Theses

In a commercial database:

Shimpalee, P. (2004). The contribution of economic and institutional factors to currency crises: Additional evidence from Asia,

Europe and the western hemisphere (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database.

(UMI No. 3142857)

In an institutional database:

Boyce, T. D. (2009). I am leaving and not looking back: The life of Benner C. Turner. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

In print:

Miller, M. W. (1981). Professional/client interaction: Implications for education and management (Unpublished doctoral dissertation).

University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

APA Manuals

What is a DOI and when do I use it?

A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that provides a persistent link to content online. In APA style, try to include a DOI for every reference if possible.

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