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Citation Formats

Publication Manual of the APA 7th ed.

The APA has established an editorial style, commonly used in the social and behavioral sciences, that combines in-text citations with a corresponding list of references for documenting sources.

  • References are formatted based on the category and reference type (e.g., book chapter, journal article, movie), not by how they were accessed or in what format you obtained them.
  • Examples below show reference list entries for the most common reference types cited by students. (See the manual for additional examples of more unusual situations.)
  • Both parenthetical and narrative styles of in-text citations are also provided for each reference list example.

Periodicals - See Manual 10.1

Journal article with a DOI (Digital Object Identifier):

Feiring, C., Simon, V., & Cleland, C. (2009). Childhood sexual abuse, stigmatization, internalizing symptoms, and the development of sexual difficulties and dating aggression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(1), 127-137.

Parenthetical citation: (Feiring et al., 2009)
Narrative citation: Feiring et al. (2009)

Journal article without a DOI (from an academic database or print version):

Siddle Walker, V. (2019). What Black educators built. Educational Leadership, 76(7), 12-18.

Parenthetical citation: (Siddle Walker, 2019)
Narrative citation: Siddle Walker (2019)

Journal article with an article number or eLocator:

Mudrak, J., Slepicka, P., & Slepickova, I. (2018). Sport motivation and doping in adolescent athletes. PLOS ONE, 13(10), Article e0205222.

Parenthetical citation: (Mudrak et al., 2018)
Narrative citation: Mudrak et al. (2018)

Magazine articles:

Cho, A. (2017, January 27). Can dark matter vanquish controversial rival theory? Science, 355(6323), 337.

Clay, R. A. (2008, June). Science v. ideology: Psychologists fight back against the misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology, 39(6), 41.

Yong, E. (2018, November 19). Psychology's replication crisis is running out of excuses. The Atlantic.

Parenthetical citation: (Cho, 2018; Clay, 2008; Yong, 2018)
Narrative citation: Cho (2018), Clay (2008), and Yong (2018)

Newspaper articles:

Basken, P. (2007, August 10). Nonprofit lenders, while helping students, help themselves. The Chronicle of Higher Education.

Ruhe, P. (2007, August 8). Pouring it on: Heat churns in vicious cycle. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, 1A.

Parenthetical citation: (Basken, 2007; Ruhe, 2007)
Narrative citation: Basken (2007) and Ruhe (2007)

Blog post:

Fister, B. (2019, October 22). The writing on the Unpaywall. Library Babel Fish.

Parenthetical citation: (Fister, 2019)
Narrative citation: Fister (2019)

Books and Reference Works - See Manual 10.2 and 10.3


Monmonier, M. S. (2018). How to lie with maps (3rd ed.). University of Chicago Press.

Hüfner, S. (Ed.). (2007). Very high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy. Springer.

Parenthetical citation: (Monmonier, 2018; Hüfner, 2007)
Narrative citation: Monmonier (2018) and Hüfner (2007)

Eggins, S., & Slade, D. (1997). Analyzing casual conversation. Cassell.


Robins, R. W., Fraley, R. C., & Krueger, R. F. (Eds.). (2007). Handbook of research methods in personality psychology. Guilford Press.

Parenthetical citation: (Eggins & Slade, 1997; Robins et al., 2007)
Narrative citation: Eggins and Slade (1997) and Robins et al. (2007)

Chapter in an edited book:

Black, L., & Jackson, V. (2005). Families of African origin: An overview. In M. McGoldrick, J. Giordano, & N. Garcia-Preto (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (3rd ed., pp. 77-86). Guilford Press.

Parenthetical citation: (Black & Jackson, 2005)
Narrative citation: Black and Jackson (2005)

Dictionary entry (group author):

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Dissociation. In dictionary. Retrieved December 17, 2019, from

Parenthetical citation: (Merriam-Webster, n.d.)
Narrative citation: Merriam-Webster (n.d.)

Encyclopedia article (individual author) in an edited volume:

Driver, J. (2014). The history of utilitarianism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Winter 2014 ed.). Stanford University.

Davis, H. D. (2003). State boards of education. In J. W. Guthrie (Ed.), Encyclopedia of education (2nd ed., Vol. 7, pp. 2350-2364). Macmillan Reference USA.

Parenthetical citation: (Driver, 2014; Davis, 2003)
Narrative citation: Driver (2014) and Davis (2003)

Webpages and Websites - See Manual 10.16

Webpage on a news website (with and without a known author):

Tarlo, S. (2019, December 9). Experts say kids still have way too much homework. Salon.

Parenthetical citation: (Tarlo, 2019)
Narrative citation: Tarlo (2019)

Trump impeachment: US House ready for historic vote. (2019, December 18). BBC News.

Parenthetical citation: (Trump Impeachment, 2019)
Narrative citation: Trump Impeachment (2019)

*For sources with no author listed, capitalize these titles in the text using title case, even though sentence case is used in the reference list entry.

Webpage on a website with a group author (author same as site name):

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019, May 15). Depression during and after pregnancy.

American Diabetes Association. (n.d.). Skin complications.

Parenthetical citation: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2019; American Diabetes Association, n.d.)
Narrative citation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2019) and American Diabetes Association (n.d.)

*If you include the abbreviation in the first in-text citation as above, you can use just the abbreviation in subsequent in-text citations.

Government, Business, and Technical Reports - See Manual 10.4

Government report (group author):

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003). Managing asthma: A guide for schools (NIH Publication No. 02-2650). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health.

Parenthetical citation: (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [NHLBI], 2003)
Narrative citation: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI, 2003)

*If you include the abbreviation in the first in-text citation as above, you can use just the abbreviation in subsequent in-text citations.

Industry Report from IBISWorld:

Ahmad, A. (2014, September). Candy production in the US (IBISWorld Industry Report No. 31134). IBISWorld.

Parenthetical citation: (Ahmad, 2014)
Narrative citation: Ahmad (2014)

Working Papers:

Deming, D., & Dynarski, S. (2008). The lengthening of childhood (NBER Working Paper No. 14124). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Victor, N. M. (2008). Gazprom: Gas giant under strain (Working Paper No. 71). Stanford University Program on Energy and Sustainable Development.

Parenthetical citation: (Deming & Dynarski, 2008; Victor, 2008)
Narrative citation: Deming and Dynarski (2008) and Victor (2008)

Dissertations and Theses - See Manual 10.6

Published in a database:

Bryce, M. S. (2013). The own-age bias in memory and memory monitoring for faces (Publication No. 3572775) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Virginia]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Parenthetical citation: (Bryce, 2013)
Narrative citation: Bryce (2013)

Published in an institutional or university archive:

Davis, J. (2015). A tale of two landscapes: Examining alienation and non-visitation among local African American fishers at Congaree National Park [Master's thesis, University of South Carolina]. Scholar Commons.

Parenthetical citation: (Davis, 2015)
Narrative citation: Davis (2015)

Unpublished (only in print at the degree-granting college or university):

Miller, M. W. (1981). Professional/client interaction: Implications for education and management [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Minnesota.

Parenthetical citation: (Miller, 1981)
Narrative citation: Miller (1981)

PolicyMap Examples (for student papers)

Interactive Map from PolicyMap Database (for student papers):

Crude percent of adults who binge drink in 2020 [Interactive map]. (n.d.) PolicyMap (based on data from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Population Level Analysis and Community Estimates). Retrieved February 2, 2023.

Medically Underserved Areas (MUA), as of 2022 [Interactive map]. (n.d.) PolicyMap (based on data from the Health Resources and Services Administration). Retrieved November 17, 2022.

What is a DOI?

A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that provides a persistent link to content online.

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