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Citation Formats: APA 7 Format (New!)

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) 7th ed.

The APA has established an editorial style, commonly used in the social and behavioral sciences, that combines in-text citations with a corresponding list of references for documenting sources.

  • References are formatted based on the category and reference type (e.g., book chapter, journal article, movie), not by how they were accessed or in what format you obtained them.
  • Examples below show reference list entries for the most common reference types cited by students. (See the manual for additional examples of more unusual situations.)
  • Both parenthetical and narrative styles of in-text citations are also provided for each reference list example.

A free ebook version of the Publication Manual of the APA (7th edition) is available online from RedShelf until May 25, 2020.

Periodicals - See Manual 10.1

Journal article with a DOI (Digital Object Identifier):

Feiring, C., Simon, V., & Cleland, C. (2009). Childhood sexual abuse, stigmatization, internalizing symptoms, and the development of sexual difficulties and dating aggression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(1), 127-137. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013475

Parenthetical citation: (Feiring et al., 2009)
Narrative citation: Feiring et al. (2009)

Journal article without a DOI (from an academic database or print version):

Siddle Walker, V. (2019). What Black educators built. Educational Leadership, 76(7), 12-18.

Parenthetical citation: (Siddle Walker, 2019)
Narrative citation: Siddle Walker (2019)

Journal article with an article number or eLocator:

Mudrak, J., Slepicka, P., & Slepickova, I. (2018). Sport motivation and doping in adolescent athletes. PLOS ONE, 13(10), Article e0205222. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0205222

Parenthetical citation: (Mudrak et al., 2018)
Narrative citation: Mudrak et al. (2018)

Magazine articles:

Cho, A. (2017, January 27). Can dark matter vanquish controversial rival theory? Science, 355(6323), 337. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.355.6323.337

Clay, R. A. (2008, June). Science v. ideology: Psychologists fight back against the misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology, 39(6), 41.

Yong, E. (2018, November 19). Psychology's replication crisis is running out of excuses. The Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2018/11/psychologys-replication-crisis-real/576223

Parenthetical citation: (Cho, 2018; Clay, 2008; Yong, 2018)
Narrative citation: Cho (2018), Clay (2008), and Yong (2018)

Newspaper articles:

Basken, P. (2007, August 10). Nonprofit lenders, while helping students, help themselves. The Chronicle of Higher Education. https://www.chronicle.com/article/Nonprofit-Lenders-While/25004

Ruhe, P. (2007, August 8). Pouring it on: Heat churns in vicious cycle. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, 1A.

Parenthetical citation: (Basken, 2007; Ruhe, 2007)
Narrative citation: Basken (2007) and Ruhe (2007)

Blog post:

Fister, B. (2019, October 22). The writing on the Unpaywall. Library Babel Fish. https://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/library-babel-fish/writing-unpaywall

Parenthetical citation: (Fister, 2019)
Narrative citation: Fister (2019)

Books and Reference Works - See Manual 10.2 and 10.3

Books:

Monmonier, M. S. (2018). How to lie with maps (3rd ed.). University of Chicago Press. https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226436081.001.0001

Hüfner, S. (Ed.). (2007). Very high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-68133-7

Parenthetical citation: (Monmonier, 2018; Hüfner, 2007)
Narrative citation: Monmonier (2018) and Hüfner (2007)

Eggins, S., & Slade, D. (1997). Analyzing casual conversation. Cassell.

 

Robins, R. W., Fraley, R. C., & Krueger, R. F. (Eds.). (2007). Handbook of research methods in personality psychology. Guilford Press.

Parenthetical citation: (Eggins & Slade, 1997; Robins et al., 2007)
Narrative citation: Eggins and Slade (1997) and Robins et al. (2007)

Chapter in an edited book:

Black, L., & Jackson, V. (2005). Families of African origin: An overview. In M. McGoldrick, J. Giordano, & N. Garcia-Preto (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (3rd ed., pp. 77-86). Guilford Press.

Parenthetical citation: (Black & Jackson, 2005)
Narrative citation: Black and Jackson (2005)

Dictionary entry (group author):

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Dissociation. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved December 17, 2019, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/dissociation

Parenthetical citation: (Merriam-Webster, n.d.)
Narrative citation: Merriam-Webster (n.d.)

Encyclopedia article (individual author) in an edited volume:

Driver, J. (2014). The history of utilitarianism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Winter 2014 ed.). Stanford University. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2014/entries/utilitarianism-history/

Davis, H. D. (2003). State boards of education. In J. W. Guthrie (Ed.), Encyclopedia of education (2nd ed., Vol. 7, pp. 2350-2364). Macmillan Reference USA.

Parenthetical citation: (Driver, 2014; Davis, 2003)
Narrative citation: Driver (2014) and Davis (2003)

Webpages and Websites - See Manual 10.16

Webpage on a news website (with and without a known author):

Tarlo, S. (2019, December 9). Experts say kids still have way too much homework. Salon. https://www.salon.com/2019/12/08/experts-say-kids-still-have-way-too-much-homework

Parenthetical citation: (Tarlo, 2019)
Narrative citation: Tarlo (2019)

Trump impeachment: US House ready for historic vote. (2019, December 18). BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-50834324

Parenthetical citation: (Trump Impeachment, 2019)
Narrative citation: Trump Impeachment (2019)

*For sources with no author listed, capitalize these titles in the text using title case, even though sentence case is used in the reference list entry.

Webpage on a website with a group author (author same as site name):

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019, May 15). Depression during and after pregnancy. https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/features/maternal-depression

American Diabetes Association. (n.d.). Skin complications. https://www.diabetes.org/diabetes/complications/skin-complications

Parenthetical citation: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2019; American Diabetes Association, n.d.)
Narrative citation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2019) and American Diabetes Association (n.d.)

*If you include the abbreviation in the first in-text citation as above, you can use just the abbreviation in subsequent in-text citations.

Government, Business, and Technical Reports - See Manual 10.4

Government report (group author):

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003). Managing asthma: A guide for schools (NIH Publication No. 02-2650). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof/lung/asthma/asth_sch.pdf

Parenthetical citation: (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [NHLBI], 2003)
Narrative citation: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI, 2003)

*If you include the abbreviation in the first in-text citation as above, you can use just the abbreviation in subsequent in-text citations.

Industry Report from IBISWorld:

Ahmad, A. (2014, September). Candy production in the US (IBISWorld Industry Report No. 31134). IBISWorld.

Parenthetical citation: (Ahmad, 2014)
Narrative citation: Ahmad (2014)

Working Papers:

Deming, D., & Dynarski, S. (2008). The lengthening of childhood (NBER Working Paper No. 14124). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://www.nber.org/papers/w14124

Victor, N. M. (2008). Gazprom: Gas giant under strain (Working Paper No. 71). Stanford University Program on Energy and Sustainable Development. https://pesd.fsi.stanford.edu/publications/gazprom_gas_giant_under_strain/

Parenthetical citation: (Deming & Dynarski, 2008; Victor, 2008)
Narrative citation: Deming and Dynarski (2008) and Victor (2008)

Dissertations and Theses - See Manual 10.6

Published in a database:

Bryce, M. S. (2013). The own-age bias in memory and memory monitoring for faces (Publication No. 3572775) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Virginia]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Parenthetical citation: (Bryce, 2013)
Narrative citation: Bryce (2013)

Published in an institutional or university archive:

Davis, J. (2015). A tale of two landscapes: Examining alienation and non-visitation among local African American fishers at Congaree National Park [Master's thesis, University of South Carolina]. Scholar Commons. https://scholarcommons.sc.edu/etd/3135

Parenthetical citation: (Davis, 2015)
Narrative citation: Davis (2015)

Unpublished (only in print at the degree-granting college or university):

Miller, M. W. (1981). Professional/client interaction: Implications for education and management [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Minnesota.

Parenthetical citation: (Miller, 1981)
Narrative citation: Miller (1981)

APA Manuals

What is a DOI and when do I use it?

A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that provides a persistent link to content online.

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