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Citation Formats: MLA 8 and 9

The New MLA

The MLA Handbook, 8th edition, has abandoned the "print" v. "web" designations, and now uses a universal set of guidelines for all sources focusing on "containers" of information. The 9th edition of the handbook continues the same format and provides additional examples.

  • A useful practice template for creating source citations is linked in the Help Resources in the right column below.
  • For experienced users of MLA, check out the link to "What's New in the Eighth Edition" for a summary of changes.

Journal Article examples

Journal article with a DOI (Digital Object Identifier):

Kincaid, Jamaica. "In History." Callaloo, vol. 24, no. 2, Spring 2001, pp. 620-26. Project Muse, doi:10.1353/cal.2001.0097.

Journal article from a database:

Capperdoni, Alessandra. "Why the Avant-Garde? The Function of the Letter in Canadian Avant-Garde Poetics." Canadian Literature, no. 210/211, Autumn/Winter 2011, pp. 97-114. Academic Search Complete,

Journal article in print (more than 2 authors):

Cooper, Stewart E., et al. "Professional Preparation and Continuing Education for Beginning, Entry, Midlevel, and Senior Consulting Psychologists." Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, vol. 59, no. 1, 2007, pp. 1-16.

Journal article reprinted in a book series:

Bergmann, Harrier F. "‘A Piercing Virtue': Emily Dickinson in Margaret Drabble's The Waterfall." Contemporary Literary Criticism, edited by,  Jeffrey W. Hunter, vol. 129, Gale, 2000, pp. 124-29. Originally published in Modern Fiction Studies, vol. 36, no. 2, Summer 1990, pp. 181-93.

Journal article from an online repository or other open access site:

Shehan, Constance L., and Amanda B. Moras. “Deconstructing Laundry: Gendered Technologies and the Reluctant Redesign of Household Labor.” Michigan Family Review, vol. 11, no. 1, 2006, pp. 39-54.

Articles from Magazines, Newspapers, Encyclopedias, and the Web

Print magazine article:

Kates, Robert W. “Population and Consumption: What We Know, What We Need to Know.” Environment, Apr. 2000, pp. 10-19.

Online magazine article:

Deresiewicz, William. “The Death of the Artist—and the Birth of the Creative Entrepreneur.” The Atlantic, 28 Dec.2014,

Print newspaper article:

Ruhe, Pierre. "Pouring it On: Heat Churns in a Vicious Cycle." The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, main edition, 8 Aug. 2008, p. A1.

Online newspaper article (no author):

“The Scientists Speak.” New York Times, 20 Nov. 2007,

Newspaper article from a library database:

Jeromack, Paul. “This Once, A David of the Art World Does Goliath a Favor.” New York Times, late edition, 13 July 2002, p. B7. LexisNexis Academic,,270077,11059,8411&hl=t&hv=t&hnsd=f&hns=t&hgn=t&oc=00240&perma=true.

Article in multi-volume encyclopedia:

Schroth, Gwen. "Scheduling." Encyclopedia of Education, edited by James W. Guthrie, 2nd ed., vol. 6, Macmillan Reference USA, 2003, pp. 2095-99.

Blog post or web article:

Hollmichel, Stefanie. "The Reading Brain: Differences between Digital and Print." So Many Books, 25 Apr. 2013,

Book and Anthology examples

Books in print:

Wieder, Alan. Teacher and Comrade: Richard Dudley and the Fight for Democracy in South Africa. State U of New York P, 2008.

Eggins, Suzanne, and Diana Slade. Analyzing Casual Conversation. Cassell, 1997.

Quirk, Randolph, et al. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. Longman,1985.

Ebook from a library database:

Coutinho, Steve. An Introduction to Daoist Philosophies. Columbia UP, 2014. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost),

Book chapter in an edited volume:

Bordo, Susan. “The Moral Content of Nabokov’s Lolita.” Aesthetic Subjects, edited by Pamela R. Matthews and David McWhirter, U of Minnesota P, 2003, pp. 125-52.

Stand-alone work (e.g., a play) in an anthology:

Euripides. The Trojan WomenTen Plays, translated by Paul Roche, New American Library, 1998, pp. 457-512.

Dissertations And Theses

Dissertation from ProQuest database:

Njus, Jesse. Performing the Passion: A Study on the Nature of Medieval Acting. 2010. Northwestern U, PhD dissertation. ProQuest,

Print master's thesis:

Remedios, Richard E. Defining My Process: My Journey Through the MFA Acting Program at the University of South Carolina. 2007. U of South Carolina, Master's thesis.

Social Media and Non-Textual Sources


@USC. "GO GAMECOCKS." Twitter, 13 Mar. 2022, 7:52 p.m.,

YouTube video:

"This is How Social Media is Destroying Your Life - The Fake Reality." YouTube, uploaded by MotivationGrid, 16 Jul. 2019,

Online image with URL and access date:

Van Gogh, Vincent. The Potato Eaters. 1885. Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam. Van Gogh Museum, Accessed 20 Mar. 2022.

Streaming film:

The Untold Story of Emmett Louis Till, directed by Keith Beauchamp, Shout Factory, 2005, Kanopy. Accessed 20 Mar. 2022.

MLA Handbook

Help resources

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