These guidelines are based on the 11th edition of the AMA Manual of Style. For additional information, please see:
Christian SL, Iverson C, Flanagin A, et al. AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors. 11th ed. Oxford University Press; 2020.
For In-Text Citations
As previously reported,1
As previously reported,1-3,6,8
Taylor and Washington2 reported
For in-text citations with 3 or more authors, list the last name of the first author followed by et al to represent the rest.
Taylor et al3 reported
For the Reference Page
Journal article with a DOI (Digital Object Identifier):
Ceraulo AS, Bytomski JR. Infectious mononucleosis management in athletes. Clin Sports Med. 2019;38(4):551-561. doi:10.1016/j.csm.2019.06.002
Narrative in-text citation: Ceraulo and Bytomski1 reported
Journal article without a DOI
Hassler WC. Industrial diseases and the public health. Cal West Med. 1929;30(6):413-416. Accessed July 30, 2020. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1656206/pdf/calwestmed00186-0037.pdf
Narrative in-text citation: Hassler2 reported
Journal article with an article number or eLocator:
Mars B, Gunnell D, Biddle L, et al. Prospective associations between internet use and poor mental health: a population-based study. PLoS One. 2020;15(7):e0235889. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0235889
Narrative in-text citation: Mars et al3 studied
Brody JE. What to say to someone with cancer. New York Times. January 13, 2020. Accessed August 4, 2020. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/13/well/live/what-to-say-to-someone-with-cancer.html
Bleich SN. Envisioning food security: steps we take now can help. Harvard Health blog. July 15, 2020. Accessed August 4, 2020. https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/envisioning-food-security-steps-we-take-now-can-help-2020071520611
Ford CL, Griffith DM, Bruce MA, Gilbert KL, eds. Racism: Science & Tools for the Public Health Professional. American Public Health Association Press; 2019.
Chapter in an edited book:
Gallop J. The ethics of reading: close encounters. In Stagno S, Blackie M, eds. From Reading to Healing: Teaching Medical Professionalism Through Literature. Kent University Press;2019:6-16.
Mauffrey C, Hak DJ, Martin MP III, eds. Compartment Syndrome: A Guide to Diagnosis and Management. Springer; 2019. Accessed August 6, 2020. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK553913/
Health equity considerations and racial and ethic minority groups. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated July 24, 2020. Accessed August 3, 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/health-equity/race-ethinicity.html
Interview with Mercedes R. Carnethon, author of “Disparities Research, Disparities Researchers, and Health Equity”. JAMA. December 16, 2019. Accessed August 9, 2020. https://edhub.ama-assn.org/jn-learning/audio-player/18106571
National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. COPD National Action Plan. National Institute of Health; 2017. NIH publication 17-HL-8031. Accessed August 6, 2020. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/sites/default/files/publications/
Center for Global Health. Strengthening Global Cancer Research & Control. National Institutes of Health; 2016. NIH publication 16-CA-8025. Accessed August 6, 2020. https://www.cancer.gov/about-nci/organization/cgh/research/
Published in an institutional or university archive:
Webb, LA. Psychometric Evaluation of Lung Cancer Stigma Among Lung Cancer Survivors in South Carolina. Dissertation. University of South Carolina; 2019. Accessed August 4, 2020. https://scholarcommons.sc.edu/ etd/5327/
A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that provides a persistent link to content online.