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Citation Formats: AMA

American Medical Association (AMA) Citation Style 11th ed.

These guidelines are based on the 11th edition of the AMA Manual of Style.  For additional information, please see:

Christian SL, Iverson C, Flanagin A, et al. AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors. 11th ed. Oxford University Press; 2020.

For In-Text Citations

  • For in-text citations, AMA uses a superscript numbering system.  Begin with the number 1 for the first citation used in your work.  Place the superscript numbers just outside of periods and commas but inside of colons and semicolons. 
    • As previously reported,1

    • As previously reported,1-3,6,8

  •  With in-text citations, if there are two authors, record the last names of both authors.
    •  Taylor and Washington2 reported

  •  For in-text citations with 3 or more authors, list the last name of the first author followed by et al to represent the rest.

    • Taylor et al3 reported

For the Reference Page

  • Title the reference page - REFERENCES
  • Record the last name of the first authors followed by initials. Include all authors unless there are more than six authors.
  • If there are more than six authors, list the first 3 followed by et al
  • Examples for the Reference Page
    • One author:       Taylor AB.
    • Two authors:      Taylor AB, Washington BD.
    • Three authors:   Taylor AB, Washington BD, Smith RF
    • Six authors:        Taylor, AB, Washington BD, Smith RF, Ball PD, Brown RA, Winston GL. 
    • More than six:    Taylor AB, Washington BD, Smith RF et al. 
  • Use journal abbreviations from the US National Library of Medicine.  Journal abbreviations can be found at:

Article Examples

Journal article with a DOI (Digital Object Identifier):

Ceraulo AS, Bytomski JR. Infectious mononucleosis management in athletes. Clin Sports Med. 2019;38(4):551-561. doi:10.1016/j.csm.2019.06.002

Narrative in-text citation: Ceraulo and Bytomski1 reported

Journal article without a DOI  

Hassler WC. Industrial diseases and the public health. Cal West Med. 1929;30(6):413-416. Accessed July 30, 2020. 

Narrative in-text citation:  Hassler2 reported

Journal article with an article number or eLocator:

Mars B, Gunnell D, Biddle L, et al. Prospective associations between internet use and poor mental health: a population-based study. PLoS One. 2020;15(7):e0235889. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0235889

Narrative in-text citation:  Mars et alstudied

Newspaper articles:

Brody JE. What to say to someone with cancer. New York Times. January 13, 2020. Accessed August 4, 2020.

Blog post:

Bleich SN. Envisioning food security: steps we take now can help. Harvard Health blog. July 15, 2020. Accessed August 4, 2020.

Books Examples


Ford CL, Griffith DM, Bruce MA, Gilbert KL, eds. Racism: Science & Tools for the Public Health Professional.    American Public Health Association Press; 2019.

Chapter in an edited book:

Gallop J. The ethics of reading: close encounters. In Stagno S, Blackie M, eds. From Reading to Healing: Teaching Medical Professionalism Through Literature. Kent University Press;2019:6-16.


Mauffrey C, Hak DJ, Martin MP III, eds. Compartment Syndrome: A Guide to Diagnosis and Management. Springer; 2019. Accessed August 6, 2020.

Websites and Online Content


Health equity considerations and racial and ethic minority groups. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated July 24, 2020.  Accessed August 3, 2020.


Interview with Mercedes R. Carnethon, author of “Disparities Research, Disparities Researchers, and Health Equity”. JAMA. December 16, 2019.  Accessed August 9, 2020.

Government, Business, and Technical Reports

Government Report:

National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. COPD National Action Plan. National Institute of Health; 2017. NIH publication 17-HL-8031. Accessed August 6, 2020.

Center for Global Health. Strengthening Global Cancer Research & Control. National Institutes of Health; 2016. NIH publication 16-CA-8025. Accessed August 6, 2020.

Dissertations and Theses

Published in an institutional or university archive:

Webb, LA. Psychometric Evaluation of Lung Cancer Stigma Among Lung Cancer Survivors in South Carolina. Dissertation. University of South Carolina; 2019. Accessed August 4, 2020. etd/5327/

AMA Manual

What is a DOI?

A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that provides a persistent link to content online.