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Citation Formats: AMA

American Medical Association (AMA) Citation Style 11th ed.

These guidelines are based on the 11th edition of the AMA Manual of Style.  For additional information, please see:

Christian SL, Iverson C, Flanagin A, et al. AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors. 11th ed. Oxford University Press; 2020.

For In-Text Citations

  • For in-text citations, AMA uses a superscript numbering system.  Begin with the number 1 for the first citation used in your work.  Place the superscript numbers just outside of periods and commas but inside of colons and semicolons. 
    • As previously reported,1

    • As previously reported,1-3,6,8

  •  With in-text citations, if there are two authors, record the last names of both authors.
    •  Taylor and Washington2 reported

  •  For in-text citations with 3 or more authors, list the last name of the first author followed by et al to represent the rest.

    • Taylor et al3 reported

For the Reference Page

  • Title the reference page - REFERENCES
  • Record the last name of the first authors followed by initials. Include all authors unless there are more than six authors.
  • If there are more than six authors, list the first 3 followed by et al
  • Examples for the Reference Page
    • One author:       Taylor AB.
    • Two authors:      Taylor AB, Washington BD.
    • Three authors:   Taylor AB, Washington BD, Smith RF
    • Six authors:        Taylor, AB, Washington BD, Smith RF, Ball PD, Brown RA, Winston GL. 
    • More than six:    Taylor AB, Washington BD, Smith RF et al. 
  • Use journal abbreviations from the US National Library of Medicine.  Journal abbreviations can be found at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/journals.

Article Examples

Journal article with a DOI (Digital Object Identifier):

Ceraulo AS, Bytomski JR. Infectious mononucleosis management in athletes. Clin Sports Med. 2019;38(4):551-561. doi:10.1016/j.csm.2019.06.002

Narrative in-text citation: Ceraulo and Bytomski1 reported

Journal article without a DOI  

Hassler WC. Industrial diseases and the public health. Cal West Med. 1929;30(6):413-416. Accessed July 30, 2020. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1656206/pdf/calwestmed00186-0037.pdf 

Narrative in-text citation:  Hassler2 reported

Journal article with an article number or eLocator:

Mars B, Gunnell D, Biddle L, et al. Prospective associations between internet use and poor mental health: a population-based study. PLoS One. 2020;15(7):e0235889. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0235889

Narrative in-text citation:  Mars et alstudied

Newspaper articles:

Brody JE. What to say to someone with cancer. New York Times. January 13, 2020. Accessed August 4, 2020. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/13/well/live/what-to-say-to-someone-with-cancer.html

Blog post:

Bleich SN. Envisioning food security: steps we take now can help. Harvard Health blog. July 15, 2020. Accessed August 4, 2020. https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/envisioning-food-security-steps-we-take-now-can-help-2020071520611

Books Examples

Book:

Ford CL, Griffith DM, Bruce MA, Gilbert KL, eds. Racism: Science & Tools for the Public Health Professional.    American Public Health Association Press; 2019.

Chapter in an edited book:

Gallop J. The ethics of reading: close encounters. In Stagno S, Blackie M, eds. From Reading to Healing: Teaching Medical Professionalism Through Literature. Kent University Press;2019:6-16.

Ebook:

Mauffrey C, Hak DJ, Martin MP III, eds. Compartment Syndrome: A Guide to Diagnosis and Management. Springer; 2019. Accessed August 6, 2020. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK553913/

Websites and Online Content

Website:

Health equity considerations and racial and ethic minority groups. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated July 24, 2020.  Accessed August 3, 2020.  https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/health-equity/race-ethinicity.html

Podcast:

Interview with Mercedes R. Carnethon, author of “Disparities Research, Disparities Researchers, and Health Equity”. JAMA. December 16, 2019.  Accessed August 9, 2020. https://edhub.ama-assn.org/jn-learning/audio-player/18106571

Government, Business, and Technical Reports

Government Report:

National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. COPD National Action Plan. National Institute of Health; 2017. NIH publication 17-HL-8031. Accessed August 6, 2020. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/sites/default/files/publications/
COPD%20National%20Action%20Plan%20508.pdf

Center for Global Health. Strengthening Global Cancer Research & Control. National Institutes of Health; 2016. NIH publication 16-CA-8025. Accessed August 6, 2020. https://www.cancer.gov/about-nci/organization/cgh/research/
annual-report

Dissertations and Theses

Published in an institutional or university archive:

Webb, LA. Psychometric Evaluation of Lung Cancer Stigma Among Lung Cancer Survivors in South Carolina. Dissertation. University of South Carolina; 2019. Accessed August 4, 2020. https://scholarcommons.sc.edu/ etd/5327/

AMA Manual

What is a DOI?

A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that provides a persistent link to content online.