Skip to main content

Citation Formats: Chicago 17th: Notes & Bibliography

The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS)

This guide provides example of notes and bibliographic entries* based on the 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style, preferred by scholars in history, literature, and the arts.

  • Below, example notes (full and shortened) are preceded by numbers and are followed by their corresponding bibliographic entries.
  • Usually the first reference to a source includes a full note like the examples below, while subsequent notes are shortened. (See manual 14.29-36 for help with short forms.)
  • New! The use of ibid. is now discouraged in favor of shortened forms when two or more consecutive notes cite the same source. (See manual 14.34.)
  • While the CMOS does not require writers to include access dates for online source citations (14.12), the Turabian Manual for student writers does (15.4.1.3). Please check with your instructor if you are uncertain whether or not to include them.

*For help with the CMOS author-date system of citation, please see the print manual.

Journal Article examples

Journal article with DOI assigned:

1. William J. Novak, “The Myth of the ‘Weak’ American State,” American Historical Review 113, no. 3 (June 2008): 758, https://doi.org/10.1086/ahr.113.3.752.

2. Novak, "Myth of the 'Weak' American State," 770.

Novak, William J. "The Myth of the ‘Weak’ American State." American Historical Review 113, no. 3 (June 2008): 752-72. https://doi.org/10.1086/ahr.113.3.752.

Journal article with URL and access date:

3. Wilfried Karmaus and John F. Riebow, “Storage of Serum, in Plastic and Glass Containers May Alter the Serum Concentration of Polychlorinated Biphenyls,” Environmental Health Perspectives 112 (May 2004): 645, accessed November 22, 2011, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3435987.

4. Karmaus and Riebow, "Storage of Serum," 647.

Karmaus, Wilfried, and John F. Riebow. “Storage of Serum in Plastic and Glass Containers May Alter the Serum Concentration of Polychlorinated Biphenyls.” Environmental Health Perspectives 112 (May 2004): 643-47. Accessed November 22, 2011. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3435987.

Journal article in print:

5. Sally G. McMillen, “Antebellum Southern Fathers and the Health Care of Children,” Journal of Southern History 60, no. 3 (1994): 520-21.

6. McMillen, "Antebellum Southern Fathers," 530.

McMillen, Sally G. “Antebellum Southern Fathers and the Health Care of Children.” Journal of Southern History 60, no. 3 (1994): 513-32.

Book and Book Chapter examples

Print books:

7. Salman Rushdie, The Ground beneath Her Feet (New York: Henry Holt, 1999), 24.

8. Andrew Harnack and Eugene Kleppinger, Online! A Reference Guide to Using Internet Sources, 3rd ed. (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000).

9. Ori Z. Soltes, ed., Georgia: Art and Civilization through the Ages (London: Phillip Wilson, 1999), 280.

10. Harnack and Kleppinger, Online!, 57.

11. Rushdie, Ground beneath Her Feet, 74-75.

12. Soltes, Georgia, 45.

Harnack, Andrew, and Eugene Kleppinger. Online! A Reference Guide to Using Internet Sources. 3rd ed. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000.

Rushdie, Salman. The Ground beneath Her Feet. New York: Henry Holt, 1999.

Soltes, Ori Z., ed. Georgia: Art and Civilization through the Ages. London: Philip Wilson, 1999.

Online book:

13. Stefan Hüfner, ed., Very High Resolution Photoelectron Spectroscopy (New York: Springer, 2007), 85, http://www.springerlink.com.

14. Hüfner, Very High Resolution Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

Hüfner, Stefan, ed. Very high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy. New York: Springer, 2007. http://www.springerlink.com.

Book chapters:

15. James B. Asbrook and Carol Rausch Albright, “The Frontal Lobes, Intending, and Purposeful God,” chap. 7 in The Humanizing Brain (Cleveland, OH: Pilgrim Press, 1997).

16. Glenn Gould, “Streisand as Schwarzkopf,” in The Glenn Gould Reader, ed. Tim Page (New York: Vintage, 1984), 310.

17. Gould, 310.

18. Asbrook and Albright, "Frontal Lobes," 152.

Asbrook, James B., and Carol Rausch Albright. “The Frontal Lobes, Intending, and Purposeful God.” Chap. 7 in The Humanizing Brain. Cleveland, OH: Pilgrim Press, 1997.

Gould, Glenn. “Streisand as Schwarzkopf.” In The Glenn Gould Reader, edited by Tim Page, 308-11. New York: Vintage, 1984.

Newspaper and Magazine Article examples

  • While the CMOS does not require writers to include access dates for online source citations (14.12), the Turabian Manual for student writers does (15.4.1.3). Please check with your instructor if you are uncertain whether or not to include them.

From the publication's website:

19. Pat Borzi, “Retirement Discussion Begins Anew for Favre,” New York Times, January 25, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/26/sports /football/26vikings.html?emc=etal.

20. Lauren Schiller, "How to Get Even More Women Elected," Salon, November 9, 2017, accessed December 7, 2017, https://www.salon.com/2017/11/09/how-to-get-even-more-women-elected.

Borzi, Pat. “Retirement Discussion Begins Anew for Favre.” New York Times, January 25, 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/26/sports/football/26vikings.html?emc=etal.

Schiller, Lauren. "How to Get Even More Women Elected." Salon, November 9, 2017. Accessed December 7, 2017. https://www.salon.com/2017/11/09/how-to-get-even-more-women-elected.

From a library database:

21. Beth Daley, “A Tale of a Whale: Scientists, Museum Are Eager to Study, Display Rare Creature,” Boston Globe, June 11, 2002, accessed June 12, 2002, LexisNexis Academic.

22. Andre Laguerre, “Clues to a Princess's Choice,” Life, October 10, 1955, accessed June 26, 2009, EBSCOhost.

Daley, Beth. “A Tale of a Whale: Scientists, Museum Are Eager to Study, Display Rare Creature.” Boston Globe, June 11, 2002. Accessed June 12, 2002. LexisNexis Academic.

Laguerre, Andre. “Clues to a Princess's Choice.” Life, October 10, 1955. Accessed June 26, 2009. EBSCOhost.

In print:

23. Gretchen Morgenson, “Applying a Discount to Good Earnings News,” New York Times, April 23, 2000.

24. Karl Vick, “Cuba on the Cusp,” Time, March 26, 2015.

Morgenson, Gretchen. “Applying a Discount to Good Earnings News,” New York Times, April 23, 2000.

Vick, Karl. “Cuba on the Cusp.” Time, March 26, 2015.

Dissertations and Theses

In print:

25. Richard E. Remedios, "Defining my Process: My Journey Through the MFA Acting Program at the University of South Carolina" (master’s thesis, University of South Carolina, 2007), 35.

26. Remedios, "Defining my Process," 48.

Remedios, Richard E. "Defining my Process: My Journey Through the MFA Acting Program at the University of South Carolina." Master's thesis, University of South Carolina, 2007.

From a library database:

27. Mihwa Choi, “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty” (PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2008), 59, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses.

27. Choi, “Contesting Imaginaires,” 82.

Choi, Mihwa. “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2008. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses.

Websites, Blogs, and Social Media examples

  • While the CMOS does not require writers to include access dates for online source citations (14.12), the Turabian Manual for student writers does (15.4.1.3). Please check with your instructor if you are uncertain whether or not to include them.
  • Citations of website content, blogs, and social media posts can often be included in the notes only (without a corresponding entry in the bibliography). Again, check with your instructor if you are not sure what is required.

28. “Privacy Policy,” Privacy & Terms, Google, last modified March 25, 2016, http://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

29. Barbara Fister, “Pranking the Academy,” Library Babel Fish (blog), Inside Higher Ed, September 22, 2017, accessed October 3, 2017, https://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/library-babel-fish/pranking-academy.

30. Conan O'Brien (@ConanOBrien), "In honor of Earth Day, I'm recycling my tweets," Twitter, April 22, 2015, 11:10 a.m., https://twitter.com/ConanOBrien/status/590940792967016448.

Fister, Barbara. “Pranking the Academy.” Library Babel Fish (blog). Inside Higher Ed, September 22, 2017. Accessed October 3, 2017. https://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/library-babel-fish/pranking-academy.

Google. “Privacy Policy.” Last modified March 25, 2016. http://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

Chicago

What is a DOI?

A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that provides a persistent link to content online. Chicago style asks that you include a DOI for journal articles that have one.

Printable style sheets