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Citation Styles for the Sciences

In-Text Citations

In the citation-sequence system, in-text references are cited with sequential superscript numbers, such as this1. If you are citing more than one reference within a sentence, you can use a superscript sequence of numbers, like this2,3.

References

Books

Author(s). Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date. Extent. Notes.

Example:

Schott J, Priest J. Leading antenatal classes: a practical guide. 2nd ed. Boston (MA): Books for Midwives; 2002.

 
Conference Papers

Author(s). Title of paper. In: Editor(s). Title of book. Number and name of conference; date of conference; place of conference. Place of publication: publisher; date. Location. Notes.

Example:

Lee DJ, Bates D, Dromey C, Xu X, Antani S. An imagining system correlating lip shapes with tongue contact patterns for speech pathology research. In: Krol M, Mitra S, Lee DJ, editors. CBMS 2003. Proceedings of the 16th IEEE Symptosium on Computer-Based Medical Systems; 2003 Jun 26-27; New York. Los Alamitos (CA): IEEE Computer Society; c2003. p. 307-313.

 
Conference Proceedings

Editor(s). Title of book. Number and name of conference; date of conference; place of conference. Place of publication: publisher;date. Extent. Notes.

Example:

Antonioli GE, editor. Pacemaker leads 1997. Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Pacemaker Leads; 1997 Sep 11-13; Ferrara, Italy. Bologna (Italy): Monducci Editore; c1997.

 
Dissertations and Theses

Author(s). Title of dissertation or thesis [content designator]. Place of publication: publisher; date. Extent. Notes.

Example:

Lutz M. 1903: American nervousness and the economy of cultural change [dissertation]. [Stanford (CA)]: Stanford University; 1989.

 
e-Books

Author(s). Title of book. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date of publication [date updated; date accessed]. Notes.

Example:

Griffiths AJF, Miller JH, Suzuki DT, Lewontin RC, Gelbart WM. Introduction to genetic analysis. 7th ed. New York (NY): W. H. Freeman & Co.; c2000 [accessed 2005 May 31]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?call=bv.View..ShowTOC&rid=iga. TOC.

 
Journal Articles (Online)

Author(s). Title of article. Title of journal (edition). Date of publication [date updated; date accessed];volume(issue):location. Notes.

Example:

Savage E, Ramsay M, White J, Beard S, Lawson H, Hunjan R, Brown D. Mumps outbreaks across England and Wales in 2004: observational study. BJM. 2005 [accessed 2005 May 31];330(7500):1119-1120. http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/reprint/330/7500/1119. doi:10.1136/bmj.330.7500.1119.

 
Journal Articles (Print)

Author(s) name. Article title. Abbreviated journal title. Date;volume(issue):page numbers.

Example:

Smart N, Fang ZY, Marwick TH. A practical guide to exercise training for heart failure patients. J Card Fail. 2003;9(1):49-58.

 
Journal Articles With More Than 10 Authors (Print)

First 10 authors' names, et al. Article title. Abbreviated journal title. Date;volume(issue):page numbers.

Example:

Pizzi C, Caraglia M, Cianciulli M, Fabbrocini A, Libroia A, Matano E, Contegiacomo A, Del Prete S, Abbruzzese A, Martignetti A, et al. Low-dose recombinant IL-2 induces psychological changes: monitoring by Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Anticancer Res. 2002;22(2A):727-732.

 
Technical Reports

Author(s). Title of report. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date. Extent. Report No.: Notes.

Example:

Feller BA. Health characteristics of persons with chronic activity limitation, United States, 1979. Hyattsville (MD): National Center for Health Statistics (US); 1981. Report No.: VHS-SER-10/137. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA; PB88-228622.

 
Websites

Title of Homepage. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date of publication [date updated; date accessed]. Notes.

Example:

APSnet: plant pathology. St. Paul (MN): American Phytopathological Association; c1994-2005 [accessed 2005 Jun 20]. http://www.apsnet.org/.